Present Subjunctive

Prerequisite: Present Indicative

Overview: Conjugation

Root = yo form of present indicative minus final “O”

bailar –> bailo –> bail-
conocer –> conozco –> conozc-
salir –> salgo –> salg-

Regular Verbs

bailar conocer salir
yo baile conozca salga
bailes conozcas salgas
usted, él, ella baile conozca salga
nosotros bailemos conozcamos salgamos
vosotros bailéis conozcáis salgáis
ustedes, ellos, ellas bailen conozcan salgan

Irregular Verbs

1. Stem-changing

-AR, -ER use infinitive stem in nosotros/vosotros

pensar entender
yo piense entienda
pienses entiendas
usted, él, ella piense entienda
nosotros pensemos entendamos
vosotros penséis entendáis
ustedes, ellos, ellas piensen entiendan

-IR with O –> UE in present indicative becomes O –> U in nosotros/vosotros
-IR with E –> IE in present indicative becomes E –> I in nosotros and vosotros
-IR with E –> I in present indicative is a regular verb

dormir mentir pedir
yo duerma mienta pida
duermas mientas pidas
usted, él, ella duerma mienta pida
nosotros durmamos mintamos pidamos
vosotros durmáis mintáis pidáis
ustedes, ellos, ellas duerman mientan pidan

2. Spelling change

Three common verb types: -GAR, -CAR, -ZAR

pagar sacar cazar
yo pague saque cace
pagues saques caces
usted, él, ella pague saque cace
nosotros paguemos saquemos cacemos
vosotros paguéis saquéis cacéis
ustedes, ellos, ellas paguen saquen cacen

3. Alternative stem

Yo form of present indicative does not end in “O”.

ser ir saber
yo sea vaya sepa
seas vayas sepas
usted, él, ella sea vaya sepa
nosotros seamos vayamos sepamos
vosotros seáis vayáis sepáis
ustedes, ellos, ellas sean vayan sepan
estar dar
yo esté
estés des
usted, él, ella esté
nosotros estemos demos
vosotros estéis deis
ustedes, ellos, ellas estén den

haber –> haya

Overview: Use

Comments

Comment + que + subjunctive

Subjects must be different

1. Emotions

e.g. Estoy feliz que estudies.

2. Wants (hopes, wishes, needs)

e.g. Esperamos que Miguel gane.

3.Recommendations (suggestions, requests)

e.g. Recomiendo que leas el libro.

4. Obligating and allowing

e.g. Obligo que estudies.

5. Doubt

e.g. Dudo que tengas cinco casas.

6. Judgment

e.g. Es malo que Pablo no pueda leer.

Relative Clauses

1. Unrealized events

e.g. Voy a comer en cuanto termine la cena.

2. Non-existent and non-specific subjects

e.g. No hay nadie que viva en la luna.
e.g. Necesito un libro que explique la filosofía.

3. Non-specific actions

e.g. Podemos ir cuando quieras.

4. Purpose and condition

e.g. Trabajo para que puedas estudiar.
e.g. Puedo ir con tal que tú vayas también.

5. por + adjective/adverb + que

e.g. Por mucho que estudie, no entiendo.

6. Object of relative is a superlative

e.g. Eres el mejor amigo que yo haya tenido.

7. Exhortation/plea

e.g. Qué tengas un buen día.
e.g. ¡Qué viva el cumpleañero!

Tutorial: Present Subjunctive Conjugation, Regular Verbs

Practice Quiz: Present Subjunctive, Regular Verbs

Present Subjunctive, Conjugation, Regular

Conjugate the given verb in the present subjunctive.

Tutorial: Present Subjunctive Conjugation, Irregular Verbs

Practice Quiz: Present Subjunctive, Irregular Verbs

Present Subjunctive, Conjugation, Irregular

Conjugate the given verb in the present subjunctive.

Practice Quiz: Present Subjunctive, Conjugation, All Verbs

Present Subjunctive, Conjugation, All Verbs

Conjugate the given verb in the present subjunctive.

Tutorial: Present Subjunctive Conjugation, Final Details

Tutorial: Present Subjunctive, Comments: Introduction, Emotions

Common Expressions of Emotion

estoy triste I am sad
estoy feliz/alegre, me alegro I am happy
me alegra it makes me happy
estoy preocupado, me preocupo I am worried
me preocupa it worries me
estoy nervioso I am nervous
tengo miedo I am scared/afraid
temer to fear
estoy enojado I am angry
me enoja it angers me
estoy sorprendido I am surprised
me sorprende it surprises me
estoy frustrado I am frustrated
me frustra it frustrates me

Practice Quiz: Comments, Emotion

Present Subjunctive, Comments, Emotion

Translate the sentences to Spanish.

Tutorial: Present Subjunctive, Comments: Wants, Recommendations

Common Expressions of Want/Recommendation

querer (e-ie) to want
desear to wish, want
esperar to hope, wait, expect
necesitar to need
pedir (e-i) to order, ask for
exigir to demand
ojalá I hope
recomendar (e-ie) to recommend
sugerir (e-ie) to suggest

Practice Quiz: Comments, Want/Recommendation

Present Subjunctive, Comments, Want/Recommendation

Translate the sentences to Spanish.

Tutorial: Present Subjunctive, Comments: Obligating and Allowing

Common Expressions of Obligating and Allowing

hacer to make
obligar to obligate, force
exigir to demand
permitir to permit, to allow
dejar to let, allow

Practice Quiz: Comments, Obligating and Allowing

Present Subjunctive, Comments: Obligating and Allowing

Translate the phrases to Spanish.

Tutorial: Present Subjunctive, Comments: Doubt, Judgment (Impersonal Expressions)

Common Expressions of Doubt/Judgment

dudar to doubt
no creo (from creer) I don´t believe, think
no pienso (from pensar) I don´t think
es imposible it´s impossible
es improbable it´s unlikely, improbable
es bueno it´s good
es malo it´s bad
me gusta I like it
es importante it´s important
es mejor it´s better
es ridículo it´s ridiculous
es absurdo it´s absurd

Practice Quiz: Comments, Doubt/Judgment

Present Subjunctive, Comments, Doubt/Judgment

Translate the sentences to Spanish.

Tutorial: Present Subjunctive, Comments: Remaining Details

Practice Quiz: Comments, Remaining Details

Present Subjunctive, Comments, Remaining Details

Translate the sentences to Spanish.

Practice Quiz: Comments, All

Present Subjunctive, Comments, All

Translate the sentences to Spanish.

Tutorial: Present Subjunctive, Relative Clauses: Introduction

Tutorial: Present Subjunctive, Relative Clauses: Unrealized Events

Practice Quiz: Unrealized Events

Present Subjunctive, Clauses: Unrealized Events

Complete the sentences by conjugating the given verb in the present indicative or the present subjunctive.

Tutorial: Present Subjunctive, Relative Clauses: Non-Existent or Non-Specific Subjects

Practice Quiz: Non-Existent or Non-Specific Subjects

Present Subjunctive, Clauses: Non-Existent or Non-Specific Subjects

Conjugate the verb in parentheses in the present subjunctive or present indicative depending on the context.

Tutorial: Present Subjunctive, Relative Clauses: Non-Specific Actions

Practice Quiz: Non-Specific Actions

Present Subjunctive, Clauses: Non-Specific Actions

Complete the translation.

Tutorial: Present Subjunctive, Relative Clauses: Purpose and Condition

Practice Quiz: Purpose and Condition

Present Subjunctive, Clauses: Purpose and Condition

Complete the translation.

Tutorial: Present Subjunctive, Relative Clauses: Remaining Details