Present Indicative

Prerequisite: Infinitive, Subject Pronouns

Overview: Conjugation

Regular Verbs

cantar comer vivir
yo canto como vivo
cantas comes vives
usted, él, ella canta come vive
nosotros cantamos comemos vivimos
vosotros cantáis coméis vivís
ustedes, ellos, ellas cantan comen viven

Irregular Verbs

1. Totally Irregular

ser estar ir
yo soy estoy voy
eres estás vas
usted, él, ella es está va
nosotros somos estamos vamos
vosotros sois estáis vais
ustedes, ellos, ellas son están van

haber –> hay

2. Irregular Yo

traer
yo traigo
traes
usted, él, ella trae
nosotros traemos
vosotros traéis
ustedes, ellos, ellas traen

3. Stem-Changing

E -> IE E -> I O -> UE +Y
pensar pedir dormir construir
yo pienso pido duermo construyo
piensas pides duermes construyes
usted, él, ella piensa pide duerme construye
nosotros pensamos pedimos dormimos construimos
vosotros pensáis pedís dormís construís
ustedes, ellos, ellas piensan piden duermen construyen

4. Spelling-Change

G -> J -U
ecoger distinguir
yo escojo distingo
escoges distingues
usted, él, ella escoge distingue
nosotros escogemos distinguimos
vosotros escogéis distinguís
ustedes, ellos, ellas escogen distinguen

5. Combinations

irregular yo
E -> IE
tener
yo tengo
tienes
usted, él, ella tiene
nosotros tenemos
vosotros tenéis
ustedes, ellos, ellas tienen

6. Wild and Crazy Verbs

oír
yo oigo
oyes
usted, él, ella oye
nosotros oímos
vosotros oís
ustedes, ellos, ellas oyen

Overview: Use

Meaning

1. General information about the present

e.g. Tú cantas bien. = You sing well.

2. Actions in progress

e.g. Estudio. = I am studying.

3. Refer to the future.

e.g. Mañana viajamos. = Tomorrow we travel.

4. Could or would

e.g. ¿Me pasas la sal? = Would/could you pass me the salt?

5. Refer to the past

e.g. Ayer estoy en una tienda y… = Yesterday I am in a store and…

Statements, Questions, Exclamations

Affirmative statement –> Ella canta bien. = She sings well.

Negative statement –> Ella no canta bien. =  She does not sing well.

Question –> ¿Ella canta bien? = Does she sing well?

Exclamation –> ¡Ella canta bien! = She sings well!

Tutorial: Present Indicative, Regular Verbs

Practice Quiz: Conjugating Cantar, Comer, Vivir

Conjugating Cantar, Comer, Vivir

Conjugate cantar, comer or vivir in the present indicative according to the subject.

25 Essential Regular Verbs
These verbs are the same as the verbs in the Essential Verbs 1 list. Click on the link for a fuller explanation of their meaning.

 -AR  -ER
cantar (sing) aprender (learn)
comprar (buy) beber (drink)
contestar (answer) comer (eat)
entregar (hand in) comprender (comprehend)
escuchar (listen) creer (think, believe)
estudiar (study) deber (should/ought to, owe)
explicar (explain) leer (read)
hablar (speak) vender (sell)
necesitar (need)
olvidar (forget) -IR 
pagar (pay) escribir (write)
pasar (happen, pass) recibir (receive)
preguntar (ask) vivir (live)
trabajar (work)

Flashcards: 25 Essential Regular Verbs

Instructions
1. Click anywhere on the card to see the answer.
2. If you know the answer, click “Got it!”. The word won´t come back.
3. If you don´t know the answer, click “Need more practice”. The word will come back.

[qdeck]

[q]to learn

[a]aprender

[q]to drink

[a]beber

[q]to sing

[a]cantar

[q]to eat

[a]comer

[q]to buy

[a]comprar

[q]to comprehend

[a]comprender

[q]to answer

[a]contestar

[q]to think, believe

[a]creer

[q]should/ought to, to owe

[a]deber

[q]to hand in

[a]entregar

[q]to write

[a]escribir

[q]to listen

[a]escuchar

[q]to study

[a]estudiar

[q]to explain

[a]explicar

[q]to speak

[a]hablar

[q]to read

[a]leer

[q]to need

[a]necesitar

[q]to forget

[a]olvidar

[q]to pay

[a]pagar

[q]to happen, pass

[a]pasar

[q]to ask

[a]preguntar

[q]to receive

[a]recibir

[q]to work

[a]trabajar

[q]to sell

[a]vender

[q]to live

[a]vivir

[/qdeck]

Practice Quiz: 25 Essential Regular Verbs

Present Indicative, 25 Essential Regular Verbs

Conjugate the verbs in parentheses in the present indicative.

Tutorial: Present Indicative, Meaning 1

Practice Quiz: Present Indicative, Meaning 1

Present Indicative, Meaning 1

Translate the sentences to Spanish. These questions are based in the Essential Verbs 1 list.

Tutorial: Affirmative and Negative Statements, Questions and Exclamations

Practice Quiz: Affirmative and Negative Statements, Questions and Exclamations

Affirmative and Negative Statements, Questions and Exclamations

Change the sentence as instructed.

Tutorial: Subject Placement

Practice Quiz: Subject Placement

Subject Placement

Rewrite the sentence in every way possible without changing the meaning. You will need to move and remove the words. Separate your answers with a comma.

Tutorial: Present Indicative, Meaning 2

Tutorial: Present Indicative, Irregular Verbs

25 Essential Irregular Verbs

These verbs are the same as the verbs in the Essential Verbs 2 list. Click on the link for a fuller explanation of their meaning.

Totally Irregular O->UE
estar (be) dormir (sleep)
ir (go) morir (die)
ser (be) poder (be able/can)
volver (come back/return)
Irregular Yo
hacer (do, make) -> yo hago U->UE
poner (put, place) -> yo pongo jugar (play)
traer (bring) -> yo traigo
+Y
E->IE construir (build/construct)
entender (understand)
pensar (think) Spelling Change
perder (lose) escoger (choose)
querer (want)
Combinations
E->I decir (say, tell) – yo digo, e->i
servir (serve) seguir (continue/keep on, follow) – sigo, e->i
pedir (ask for/order) tener (have) – yo tengo, e->ie
repetir (repeat) venir (come) – yo vengo, e->ie
Wild and Crazy
oír (hear) – oigo, oyes, oye, oímos, oís, oyen

Flashcards: 25 Essential Irregular Verbs

Instructions
1. Click anywhere on the card to see the answer.
2. If you know the answer, click “Got it!”. The word won´t come back.
3. If you don´t know the answer, click “Need more practice”. The word will come back.

[qdeck]

[q]to build/construct

[a]construir (+Y)

[q]to say, tell

[a]decir (irregular yo -> digo, e->i)

[q]to sleep

[a]dormir (o->ue)

[q]to understand

[a]entender (e->ie)

[q]to choose

[a]escoger (spelling change -> escojo)

[q]to be

[a]ser (totally irregular), estar (totally irregular)

[q]to do, make

[a]hacer (irregular yo -> hago)

[q]to go

[a]ir (totally irregular)

[q]to play

[a]jugar (u->ue)

[q] to die

[a]morir (o->ue)

[q]to hear

[a]oír (wild and crazy)

[q]to ask for/order

[a]pedir (e->i)

[q]to think

[a]pensar (e->ie)

[q]to lose

[a]perder (e->ie)

[q]to be able to/can

[a]poder (o->ue)

[q]to put, place

[a]poner (irregular yo -> pongo)

[q]to want

[a]querer (e->ie)

[q]to repeat

[a]repetir (e->i)

[q]to continue/keep on, follow

[a]seguir (spelling change -> sigo, e->i)

[q]to serve

[a]servir (e->i)

[q]to have

[a]tener (irregular yo -> tengo, e->ie)

[q]to bring

[a]traer (irregular yo -> traigo)

[q]to come

[a]venir (irregular yo -> vengo, e->ie)

[q]to come back/return

[a]volver (o->ue)

[/qdeck]

Practice Quiz: 25 Essential Irregular Verbs

Present Indicative, 25 Essential Irregular Verbs

Conjugate the verbs in parentheses in the present indicative.

More Irregular Verbs
Here are a host of other common irregular verbs. These can be found in the following lists. Essential Verbs 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Click on the link for a fuller explanation of their meaning. The parts in red indicate a pattern.

Irregular Yo  O->UE
caber (fit) -> yo quepo acordar (agree, remember)
caer (fall) -> yo caigo contar (count, tell)
conducir (drive) -> yo conduzco costar (cost)
conocer (know) -> yo conozco devolver (return-a thing)
crecer (grow) -> yo crezco encontrar (find)
nacer (be born) -> yo nazco mostrar (show)
parecer (seem) -> yo parezco recordar (remember)
producir (produce) -> yo produzco sonar (sound))
saber (know) -> yo sé
salir (leave) -> yo salgo  +Y
valer (be worth) -> yo valgo destruir (destroy)
ver (see) -> yo veo
Spelling Change
E->IE dirigir (direct)
cerrar (close) proteger (protect)
comenzar (start/begin)
convertir (convert, turn into) Combinations
divertir (entertain, have fun) conseguir (get, obtain) – yo consigo, e->i
empezar (start/begin)
encender (turn on, light) Wild and Crazy
preferir (prefer) reír (laugh) -> río, ríes, ríe, reímos, reís, ríen
recomendar (recommend) sonreír (smile)
sentir (feel)
sugerir (suggest)
E->I
competir (compete)
corregir (correct)
despedir (say goodbye, fire)

Flashcards: More Irregular Verbs

Instructions
1. Click anywhere on the card to see the answer.
2. If you know the answer, click “Got it!”. The word won´t come back.
3. If you don´t know the answer, click “Need more practice”. The word will come back.

[qdeck style]

[q]to fit

[a]caber (yo quepo)

[q]to fall

[a]caer (yo caigo)

[q]to drive

[a]conducir (yo conduzco)

[q]to know

[a]conocer (yo conozco), saber (yo sé)

[q]to grow

[a]crecer (yo crezco)

[q]to be born

[a]nacer (ya nazco)

[q]to seem

[a]parecer (yo parezco)

[q]to produce

[a]producir (yo produzco)

[q]to leave

[a]salir (yo salgo)

[q]to be worth

[a]valer (yo valgo)

[q]to see

[a]ver (yo veo)

[q]to close
[a]cerrar(e->ie)
[q]to start/begin
[a]comenzar (e->ie), empezar (e->ie)
[q]to convert, turn into
[a]convertir (e->ie)
[q]to entertain, have fun
[a]divertir (e->ie)
[q]to turn on, light
[a]encender (e->ie)
[q]to prefer
[a]preferir (e->ie)
[q]to recommend
[a]recomendar (e->ie)
[q]to feel
[a]sentir (e->ie)
[q]to suggest
[a]sugerir (e->ie)
[q]to compete
[a]competir (e->i)
[q]to correct
[a]corregir (e->i)
[q]to agree, remember
[a]acordar (o->ue)
[q]to count, tell
[a]contar(o->ue)
[q]to cost
[a]costar (o->ue)
[q]to return (a thing)
[a]devolver (o->ue)
[q]to find
[a]encontrar (o->ue)
[q]to show
[a]mostrar (o->ue)
[q]to remember
[a]recordar (o->ue)
[q]to sound
[a]sonar (o->ue)
[q]to destroy
[a]destruir (+Y)
[q]to direct
[a]dirigir (yo dirijo)
[q]to protect
[a]proteger (yo protejo)
[q]to get, obtain
[a]conseguir (yo consigo, e->i)
[q]to laugh
[a]reír (río, ríes, ríe, reímos, reís, ríen)
[q]to smile
[a]sonreír (sonrío, sonríes, sonríe, sonreímos, sonreís, sonríen)

[/qdeck]

Practice Quiz: More Irregular Verbs
Practice Quiz: All Conjugations

Present Indicative, All Conjugations

Conjugate the verbs in parentheses in the present indicative.